Header

Date requested: 3/17/2017 10:36:29 AM

Requester: Kenneth Lujan

Requester email: kenneth_lujan@fws.gov

Request status: Approved

Action and Files
Target group Site Action Tags for Action Total Tags Released Start Date End date Additional Info
Round Butte State Hatchery Spring Chinook salmon Warm Springs Wild Spring Chinook salmon B2J Collect all 120 4/3/2017 5/12/2017
Project
Title: Effect of Early Spring Release from the Pelton Ladder on C. shasta Infection Rate in Spring Chinook salmon
Project Lead: Kenneth Lujan
Agency: USFWS
Project Number: LCRFHC
Funding Agency: USFWS
Project Objectives: Determine the degree to which early release of Spring Chinook salmon form the Petlton Ladder decreases the percentage of smolts captured at the Bonneville Dam juvenile bypass facility that are infected with Certanova shasta. Hypothesis: Early release of spring chinook smolts from the Pelton ladder may decrease mortality due to C. shasta through decreased infection rate in the ladder or subsequent infection along the migration corridor to Bonneville Dam or both. For this study there are four hypothesis tests that need to be made: 1) There is no difference in infection rate of the two release groups at the time of ladder release; 2) There is no difference in infection rate of the experimental group at the time of ladder release and at the time of passage at Bonneville; 3) There is no difference in infection rate of the control group at the time of ladder release and at the time of passage at Bonneville; and 4) There is no difference in infection rate of the two release groups at the time of passage at Bonneville. Methodology: PIT tag two groups of Spring Chinook salmon in December and introduce one group of 750 PIT tagged (Experimental Fish) into Pelton Ladder Cell 1. The second group of 750 PIT-tagged SCS (Control Fish) will be introduced into Cell 2 of the Pelton Ladder in December (the same time as the Experimental Fish). Ensure that water temperatures in the Pelton ladder are monitored throughout the duration of the experiment with HOBOTEMPs. Fsh in both Cells 1 and 2 will be fed “normally” until they are released in mid-April release. Immediately prior to release of each experimental group, a random sample of 30 -60 will be collected for examination by Fish Health. Fish will be visually examined which willl miss infections that have not developed to visually identifiable stages (i.e., spore stages). Additionally, Polymerace chain reaction (PCR) will be run on tissue samples to get a decent estimate of infection prevalence and severity. On April 6, fish in Cell 1, which includes the experimental fish, will be released from the ladder. On April 15, the remaining fish in the ladder (including the Control Fish in Cell 2) will be released for the ladder. PIT tag codes for this study will be sent to PTAGIS to be used at the Bonneville Dam Juvenile Bi-Pass Faciltiy. This will allow PIT-tagged fish included in this study to be separated by code at the juvenile bypass facility where they will be euthanized by an overdose solution of MS-222 by Lower Columbia River Fish Health Center. Up to 30 fish from each group ( control and experimental) will be given a complete fish health examined at the laboratory. The fish will be included in the 4d take permit # 20755. Externally, the fish will be examined for any signs of C. shasta. Internally, the fish will be examined for virus, bacteria, and parasites. C. shata will be examined microscopically and by molecular methods (PCR and qPCR). Pathological examination must include qPCR because transit time between release at the Pelton ladder and Bonneville dam may be a short enough period that although the fish are exposed to C. shasta in the ladder and/or the river, they may not have time to develop clinical signs of the infection. QPCR analysis which will give a quantitative value of the amount of C. shasta DNA present in each gut tissue analyzed. Data will be expressed as infection prevalence (percentage of fish infected) and infection severity (parasite load) and can be correlated to time of exposure and temperature. Chi-square analysis will allow us to compare infection prevalence while ANOVA will allow us to compare infection severity among the four groups previously discussed. If chinook smolts are becoming infected with C. shasta above Bonneville, this information, in conjunction with other studies being conducted by ODFW and USFWS Fish Health, should allow us to demonstrate the progression of C. shasta to the clinical level over time and its correlation with temperature, as well as differentiate whether infection is occurring while being raised in the ladder and/or while migrating to Bonneville Dam. In addition to the above sampling, up to 10 wild SCS smolts will be collected and euthanized in order to check for fish pathogens as described above. The SCS will be pit tagged after being caught by rotary screw traps on the Warm Springs River. The purpose of this collection is to determine if wild fish migrating out from the Warm Springs River are infected by C. shata spores when they travel out of the Deschutes River basin. Fish will also be collected at the screw traps and examined for fish pathogens to determine a base-line of what the health of the fish are before they leave the Warm Springs River. The collections will be covered under my 4d NOAA permit # 20755.
Study Description: This is the third year of the study.  Our hypothesis for the study is that early release of Spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Pelton Ladder may decrease mortality due to Certanova shasta due to decreased infection rate in the ladder or subsequent infection along the migration corridor to Bonneville Dam or both.
Juvenile
Juvenile Description: The Spring Chinook salmon smolts to be captured are from Round Butte State Fish Hatchery which are not listed under ESA. Up to 60 fish will be euthanized and examined for fish health pathogens. The remainder of the fish will be released back into the Columbia River. At least 5 wild SCS smolts from the Warm Springs River will be captured. These fish are not listed under ESA, however, they will be covered under my 4d NOAA permit # 20755.
Smolt-to-Adult Ratio: No.
Collection Efficiency: No.
Adult
Adult Description: No adults will be collected.
Coordination
Certify: True